Treasury of David
TITLE and SUBJECT. A prayer of David. David would not have been a man after God's own heart, if he had not been a man of prayer. He was a master in the sacred are of supplication. He flies to prayer in all times of need, as a pilot speeds to the harbor in the stress of tempest. So frequent were David's prayers that they could not be all dated and entitled; and hence this simply bears the author's name, and nothing more. The smell of the furnace is upon the present psalm, but there is evidence in the last verse that he who wrote it came unharmed out of the flame. We have in the present plaintive song, AN APPEAL TO HEAVEN from the persecutions of earth. A spiritual eye may see Jesus here.
DIVISIONS. There are no very clear lines of demarcation between the parts; but we prefer the division adopted by that precious old commentator, David Dickson.
In verses 1-4, David craves justice in the controversy between him and his oppressors.
In verses 5 and 6, he requests of the Lord grace to act rightly while under the trial.
From verse 7-12, he seeks protection from his foes, whom he graphically describes.
In verses 13 and 14, pleads that they may be disappointed.
He closes the whole in the most comfortable confidence that all would certainly be well with himself at the last.
Verse 1. "Hear the right, O Lord." He who is in the worst case, makes the most noise; hence the oppressed soul is apprehensive that its voice may be drowned, and therefore pleads in this one verse for a hearing no less than three times. The troubled heart craves for the ear of the great Judge, persuaded that with him to hear is to redress. If our God could not or would not hear us, our state would be deplorable indeed; and yet some professors set such small store by the mercy-seat, that God does not hear them for the simple reason that they neglect to plead. As well have no house, if we persist like gipsies in living in the lanes and commons; as well have no mercy-seat as be always defending our own cause and never going to God. There is more fear that we will not hear the Lord, than that the Lord will not hear us.
"Hear the right;" it is well if our case is good in itself and can be urged as a right one, for right shall never be wronged by our righteous Judge. But if our suit be marred by our infirmities, it is a great privilege that we may make mention of the righteousness of our Lord Jesus, which is ever prevalent on high. Right has a voice which Jehovah always hears; and if my wrongs clamor against me with great force and fury, I will pray the Lord to hear that still louder and mightier voice of the right, and the rights of his dear Son.
"Hear, O God, the Just One;" that is, "hear the Messiah," is a rendering adopted by Jerome, and admired by Bishop Horsley, whether correct or not as a translation, it is proper enough as a plea. Let the reader plead it at the throne of the righteous God, even when all other arguments are unavailing.
"Attend unto my cry." This shows the vehemence and earnestness of the petitioner; he is no mere talker, he weeps and laments. Who can resist a cry? A real hearty, bitter, piteous cry, might almost melt a rock, there can be no fear of its prevalence with our heavenly Father. A cry is our earliest utterance, and in many ways the most natural of human sounds. If our prayer should like the infant's cry be more natural than intelligent, and more earnest than elegant, it will be none the less eloquent with God. There is a mighty power in a child's cry to prevail with a parent's heart.
"Give ear unto my prayer." Some repetitions are not vain. The reduplication here used is neither superstition nor tautology, but is like the repeated blow of a hammer hitting the same nail on the head to fix it the more effectually, or the continued knocking of a beggar at the gate who cannot be denied an alms.
"That goes not out of deceptive lips." Sincerity is an essential condition in prayer. Lips of deceit are detestable to man and much more to God. In fellowship so hallowed as that of prayer, hypocrisy even in the remotest degree is as fatal as it is foolish. Hypocritical piety is double iniquity. He who would feign and flatter had better try his craft with a fool like himself, for to deceive the all-seeing One is as impossible as to catch the moon in a net, or to lead the sun into a snare. He who would deceive God is himself already most grossly deceived. Our sincerity in prayer has no merit in it, any more than the earnestness of a beggar in the street; but at the same time the Lord has regard to it, through Jesus, and will not long refuse his ear to an honest and fervent petitioner.
Verse 2. "Let my sentence come forth from your presence." The psalmist has now grown bold by the strengthening influence of prayer, and he now entreats the Judge of all the earth to give sentence upon his case. He has been libelled—basely and maliciously libelled; and having brought his action before the highest court, he, like an innocent man, has no desire to escape the inquiry, but even invites and sues for judgment. He does not ask for secrecy, but would have the result come forth to the world. He would have sentence pronounced and executed forthwith.
In some matters we may venture to be as bold as this; but except we can plead something better than our own supposed innocence, it were terrible presumption thus to challenge the judgment of a sin-hating God. With Jesus as our complete and all-glorious righteousness we need not fear, though the day of judgment should commence at once, and Hell open her mouth at our feet, but might joyfully prove the truth of our hymn writer's holy boast—
"Bold shall I stand in that great day;
For who anything to my charge shall lay?
While, through your blood, absolved I am,
From sin's tremendous curse and shame."
"Let your eyes behold the things that are right." Believers do not desire any other judge than God, or to be excused from judgment, or even to be judged on principles of partiality. No; our hope does not lie in the prospect of favoritism from God, and the consequent suspension of his law. We expect to be judged on the same principals as other men, and through the blood and righteousness of our Redeemer we shall pass the ordeal unscathed.
The Lord will weigh us in the scales of justice fairly and justly. He will not use false weights to permit us to escape, but with the sternest equity those balances will be used upon us as well as upon others; and with our blessed Lord Jesus as our all in all we tremble not, for we shall not be found lacking. In David's case, he felt his cause to be so right that he simply desired the Divine eyes to rest upon the matter, and he was confident that equity would give him all that he needed.
Verse 3, "You have proved my heart." Like Peter, David uses the argument, "You know all things, you know that I love you." It is a most assuring thing to be able to appeal at once to the Lord, and call upon our Judge to be a witness for our defense. "Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then we have confidence toward God."
"You have visited me in the night." As if he had said, "Lord, you have entered my house at all hours; and you have seen me when no one else was near; you have come upon me unawares and marked my unrestrained actions, and you know whether or not I am guilty of the crimes laid at my door." Happy man who can thus remember the omniscient eye, and the omnipresent visitor—and find comfort in the remembrance.
We hope we have had our midnight visits from our Lord, and truly they are sweet; so sweet that the recollection of them sets us longing for more of such condescending communings.
Lord, if indeed, we had been hypocrites, would we have had such fellowship, or feel such hungerings after a renewal of it?
"You have tried me, and shall find nothing." Surely the Psalmist means nothing hypocritical or wicked in the sense in which his slanderers accused him; for if the Lord should put the best of his people into the crucible, the dross would be a fearful sight, and would make penitence open her sluices wide. Assayers very soon detect the presence of alloy, and when the chief of all assayers shall, at the last, say of us he has found nothing, it will be a glorious hour indeed. "They are without fault before the throne of God." Even here, as viewed in our covenant Head, the Lord sees no sin in Jacob, nor perverseness in Israel; even the all-detecting glance of Omniscience can see no flaw where the great Substitute covers all with beauty and perfection!
"I am purposed that my mouth shall not transgress." Oh those sad lips of ours! We had need of firm resolve if we would keep them from exceeding their bounds. The number of sins of the tongue is as many as the sins of all the rest of the man put together, and they are more inveterate. Hands and feet one may bind—but who can fetter the lips? Iron bands may hold a madman—but what chains can restrain the tongue? It needs more than a resolve to keep this nimble offender within its proper range. Lion-taming and serpent-charming are not to be mentioned in the same day as tongue-taming, for no man can tame the tongue.
Those who have to smart from the falsehoods of others should be the more jealous over themselves; perhaps this led the Psalmist to register this holy resolution; and, moreover, he intended thereby to aver that if he had said too much in his own defense, it was not intentional, for he desired in all-respects to tune his lips to the sweet and simple music of truth.
Notwithstanding all this David was slandered, as if to show us that the purest innocence will be bemired by malice. There is no sunshine without a shadow, no ripe fruit unpecked by the birds.
Verse 4. "Concerning the works of men." While we are in the midst of men we shall have their works thrust under our notice, and we shall be compelled to keep a corner of our diary headed "concerning the works of men." To be quite clear from the dead works of carnal humanit,y is the devout desire of souls who are quickened by the Holy Spirit.
"By the word of your lips I have kept me from the paths of the destroyer."David had kept the highway of Scripture, and not chosen the bye-paths of malice.
We would soon imitate the example of the worst of men if the grace of God did not use the Word of God as the great preservative from evil. All the ways of sin are the paths of Satan—the Apollyon or Abaddon, both of which words signify the destroyer. Foolish indeed are those who give their hearts to the old murderer, because for the time he panders to their evil desires.
That heavenly Book which lies neglected on many a shelf is the only guide for those who would avoid the enticing and entangling mazes of sin. It is the best means of preserving the pilgrim from ever treading those dangerous ways. We must follow the one or the other:
the Book of Life, or the way of death;
the word of the Holy Spirit, or the suggestion of the Evil Spirit.
David could urge as the proof of his sincerity that he had no part or lot with the ungodly in their ruinous ways. How can we venture to plead our cause with God, unless we also can wash our hands clean of all connection with the enemies of the Great King?
Verse 5. Under trial it is not easy to behave ourselves aright; a candle is not easily kept alight when many envious mouths are puffing at it. In evil times prayer is peculiarly needful, and wise men resort to it at once. Plato said to one of his disciples, "When men speak ill of you, live so that no one will believe them." This is good enough advice, but he did not tell us how to carry it out. We have a precept here incorporated in an example; if we would be preserved, we must cry to the Preserver, and enlist divine support upon our side.
"Hold up my goings"—as a careful driver holds up his horse when going down hill. We have all sorts of paces, both fast and slow, and the road is never long of one sort, but with God to hold up our goings, nothing in the pace or in the road can cast down. He who has been down once and cut his knees sadly, even to the bone, had need redouble his zeal when using this prayer.
And all of us, since we are so weak on our legs through Adam's fall, had need use it every hour of the day. If a perfect father fell, how shall an imperfect son dare to boast?
"In your paths." Forsaking Satan's paths, he prayed to be upheld in God's paths. We cannot keep from evil without keeping to good. If the bushel be not full of wheat, it may soon be once more full of chaff. In all the appointed ordinances and duties of our most holy faith, may the Lord enable us to run through his upholding grace!
"That my footsteps slip not." What! slip in God's ways? Yes, the road is good, but our feet are evil, and therefore slip, even on the King's highway.
Who wonders if carnal men slide and fall in ways of their own choosing, which like the valley of Siddim, are full of deadly slime-pits? One may trip over an ordinance as well as over a temptation. Jesus Christ himself is a stumbling-block to some, and the doctrines of grace have been the occasion of offence to many. Grace alone can hold up our goings in the paths of truth.
Verse 6. "I have called upon you, for you will hear me, O God." You have always heard me, O my Lord, and therefore I have the utmost confidence in again approaching your altar. Experience is a blessed teacher. He who has tried the faithfulness of God in hours of need, has great boldness in laying his case before the throne. The well of Bethlehem, from which we drew such cooling draughts in years gone by, our souls long for still; nor will we leave it for the broken cisterns of earth.
"Incline your ear unto me, and hear my speech." Stoop out of Heaven and put your ear to my mouth; give me your ear all to myself, as men do when they lean over to catch every word from their friend. The Psalmist here comes back to his first prayer, and thus sets us an example of pressing our suit again and again, until we have a full assurance that we have succeeded.
Verse 7. "Show your marvelous loving-kindness." Marvelous in its antiquity, its distinguishing character, its faithfulness, its immutability, and above all, marvelous in the wonders which it works. That marvelous grace which has redeemed us with the precious blood of God's only begotten, is here invoked to come to the rescue.
That grace is sometimes hidden; the text says, "Show it." Present enjoyments of divine love are matchless cordials to support fainting hearts.
Believer, what a prayer is this! Consider it well. O Lord, show your marvelous loving-kindness; show it to my intellect, and remove my ignorance; show it to my heart, and revive my gratitude; show it to my faith, and renew my confidence; show it to my experience, and deliver me from all my fears.
The original word here used is the same which in Psalm 4:3 is rendered set apart, and it has the force of: Distinguish your mercies, set them out, and set apart the choicest to be bestowed upon me in this hour of my severest affliction.
"O you that save by your right hand them which put their trust in you from those that rise up against them." The title here given to our gracious God is eminently consolatory. He is the God of salvation; it is his present and perpetual habit to save believers; he puts forth his best and most glorious strength, using his right hand of wisdom and might, to save all those, of whatever rank or class, who trust themselves with him.
Happy faith thus to secure the omnipotent protection of Heaven! Blessed God, to be thus gracious to unworthy mortals, when they have but grace to rely upon you! The right hand of God is interposed between the saints and all harm; God is never at a loss for means; his own bare hand is enough. He works without tools as well as with them.
Verse 8. "Keep me as the apple of the eye." No part of the body is more precious, more tender, and more carefully guarded than the eye; and of the eye, no portion more peculiarly to be protected than the central apple, the pupil, or as the Hebrew calls it, "the daughter of the eye."
The all-wise Creator has placed the eye in a well-protected position; it stands surrounded by projecting bones like Jerusalem encircled by mountains. Moreover, its great Author has surrounded it with many tunics of inward covering, besides the hedge of the eyebrows, the curtain of the eyelids, and the fence of the eyelashes; and, in addition to this, he has given to every man so high a value for his eyes, and so quick an apprehension of danger, that no member of the body is more faithfully cared for than the organ of sight. Thus, Lord, keep you me, for I trust I am one with Jesus, and so a member of his mystical body.
"Hide me under the shadow of your wings." Even as the parent bird completely shields her brood from evil, and meanwhile cherishes them with the warmth of her own heart, by covering them with her wings—so do you with me, most condescending God, for I am your offspring, and you have a parent's love in perfection. This last clause is in the Hebrew in the future tense, as if to show that what the writer had asked for but a moment before he was now sure would be granted to him. Confident expectations should keep pace with earnest supplication.
Verse 9. "From the wicked that oppress me, from my deadly enemies, who compass me about." The foes from whom David sought to be rescued were wicked men. It is hopeful for us when our enemies are God's enemies. They were deadly enemies, whom nothing but his death would satisfy. The foes of a believer's soul are mortal foes most emphatically, for they who war against our faith aim at the very life of our life. Deadly sins are deadly enemies, and what sin is there which has not death in it? These foes oppressed David, they laid his spirit waste, as invading armies ravage a country, or as wild beasts desolate a land.
He likens himself to a besieged city, and complains that his foes compass him about. It may well quicken our business upward, when all around us, every road, is blockaded by deadly foes. This is our daily position, for all around us dangers and sins are lurking. O God, protect us from them all.
Verse 10. "They are inclosed in their own fat." Luxury and gluttony beget vainglorious fatness of heart, which shuts up its gates against all compassionate emotions and reasonable judgments. The old proverb says that full bellies make empty skulls, and it is yet more true that they frequently make empty hearts.
The rankest weeds grow out of the fattest soil. Riches and self-indulgence are the fuel upon which some sins feed their flames. Pride and fullness of bread were Sodom's twin sins. (Ezekiel 16:49.) Fed hawks forget their masters; and the moon at its fullest is furthest from the sun. Eglon was a notable instance that a well-fed corporation is no security to life, when a sharp message comes from God, addressed to the inward vitals of the body.
"With their mouth they speak proudly." He who adores himself, will have no heart to adore the Lord. Full of selfish pleasure within his heart, the wicked man fills his mouth with boastful and arrogant expressions. Prosperity and vanity often lodge together. Woe to the fed ox when it bellows at its owner—the butcher's axe is not far off!
Verse 11. "They have now compassed us in our steps." The fury of the ungodly is aimed not at one believer alone, but at all the band; they have compassed us. All the race of the Jews were but a morsel for Haman's hungry revenge, and all because of one Mordecai. The prince of darkness hates all the saints for their Master's sake. The Lord Jesus is one of the us, and herein is our hope. He is the Breaker, and will clear a way for us through the hosts which environ us.
The hatred of the powers of evil is continuous and energetic, for they watch every step, hoping that the time may come when they shall catch us by surprise. If our spiritual adversaries thus compass every step, how anxiously should we guard all our movements, lest by any means we should be betrayed into evil!
"They have set their eyes bowing down to the earth." Trapp witily explains this metaphor by an allusion to a bull when about to run at his victim; he lowers his head, looks downward, and then concentrates all his force in the dash which he makes.
It most probably denotes the malicious emnity with which the enemy watches the steps of the righteous; as if they studied the ground on which they trod, and searched after some wrong foot-mark to accuse them for the past, or some stumbling-stone to cast in their future path to trip them in days to come.
Verse 12. They are like a lion hungry for prey, like a great lion crouching in cover. Lions are not more greedy, nor their ways more cunning than are Satan and his helpers when engaged against the children of God. The blood of souls the adversary thirsts after, and all his strength and craft are exerted to the utmost to satisfy his detestable appetite.
We are weak and foolish like sheep; but we have a shepherd wise and strong, who knows the old lion's wiles, and is more than a match for his force; therefore will we not fear, but rest in safety in the fold. Let us beware, however, of our lurking foe; and in those parts of the road where we feel most secure, let us look about us lest, perhaps, our foe should leap upon us.
Verse 13. "Arise, O Lord." The more furious the attack, the more fervent the Psalmist's prayer. His eye rests singly upon the Almighty, and he feels that God has but to rise from the seat of his patience, and the work will be performed at once. Let the lion spring upon us, if Jehovah steps between, we need no better defense. When God meets our foe face to face in battle, the conflict will soon be over.
"Disappoint him." Be beforehand with him, outwit and outrun him. Appoint it otherwise than he has appointed, and so disappoint him.
"Cast him down." Prostrate him. Make him sink upon his knees. Make him bow as the conquered bows before the conqueror. What a glorious sight will it be to behold Satan prostrate beneath the foot of our glorious Lord! Hasten, glorious day!
"Deliver my soul from the wicked, which is your sword." He recognizes the most profane and oppressive as being under the providential rule of the King of kings, and used as a sword in the divine hand. What can a sword do unless it be wielded by a hand? No more could the wicked annoy us, unless the Lord permitted them so to do.
Most translators are, however, agreed that this is not the correct reading, but that it should be as Calvin puts it, "Deliver my soul from the ungodly man by your sword." Thus David contrasts the sword of the Lord with human aids and reliefs, and rests assured that he is safe enough under the patronage of Heaven.
Verse 14. Almost every word of this verse has furnished matter for discussion to scholars, for it is very obscure. We will, therefore, rest content with the common version, rather than distract the reader with divers translations.
"From men which are your hand." Having styled the ungodly a sword in his Father's hand, he now likens them to that hand itself, to set forth his conviction that God could as easily remove their violence as a man moves his own hand. He will never slay his child with his own hand.
"From men of the world," mere earthworms; not men of the world to come, but mere dwellers in this narrow sphere of mortality—having no hopes or wishes beyond the ground on which they tread.
"Who have their portion in this life." Like the prodigal, they have their portion, and are not content to wait their Father's time. Like Passion in the "Pilgrim's Progress," they have their best things first, and revel during their little hour.
Luther was always afraid lest he should have his portion here, and therefore frequently gave away sums of money which had been presented to him. We cannot have earth and Heaven too for our choice and portion. Wise men choose that which will last the longest.
"Whose belly you fill with your hid treasure." Their sensual appetite gets the gain which it craved for. God gives to these swine the husks which they hunger for. A generous man does not deny dogs their bones. Just so, our generous God gives even his enemies enough to fill them, if they were not so unreasonable as never to be content.
Gold and silver which are locked up in the dark treasuries of the earth are given to the wicked liberally, and they therefore roll in all manner of carnal delights. Every dog has his day, and they have theirs, and a bright summer's day it seems; but ah! how soon it ends in night!
"They are full of children." This was their fondest hope, that a race from their loins would prolong their names far down the page of history, and God has granted them this also; so that they have all that heart can wish. What enviable creatures they seem, but it is only seeming!
"They are full of children, and leave the rest of their substance to their babes." They were fat housekeepers, and yet leave no lean wills. Living and dying they lacked for nothing but grace—and alas! that lack spoils everything! They had a fair portion within the little circle of time, but eternity entered not into their calculations.
They were penny wise, but pound foolish.
They remembered the present, and forgot the future.
They fought for the shell, and lost the kernel.
How fine a description have we here of many a successful merchant, or popular statesman; and it is, at first sight, very showy and tempting, but in contrast with the glories of the world to come, what are these paltry molehill joys. Self, self, self—all these joys begin and end in basest selfishness; but oh, our God, how rich are those who begin and end in you! From all the contamination and injury which association with worldly men is sure to bring us, deliver you us, O God!
Verse 15. As for me, I will see Your face in righteousness; I shall be satisfied when I awake in Your likeness.
"As for me." "I neither envy nor covet these men's happiness, but hope is far better." To behold God's face and to be changed by that vision into his image, so as to partake in his righteousness, this is my noble ambition; and in the prospect of this I cheerfully waive all my present enjoyments. My satisfaction is to come—I do not look for it here on earth. I shall sleep awhile, but I shall wake at the sound of the trumpet; wake to everlasting joy, because I arise in your likeness, O my God and King!
Glimpses of glory godly men have here below to stay their sacred hunger, but the full feast awaits them in the upper skies. Compared with this deep, ineffable, eternal fullness of delight—the joys of the worldlings are as a glowworm compared to the sun, or the drop of a bucket compared to the ocean.