Luke Chapter 16
Section 97. The Parable of the Shrewd Manager, Luke 16:1-12
And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man, which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods. And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of you? give an account of your stewardship; for you may be no longer steward. Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord takes away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed. I am resolved what to do, that, when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses. So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owe you unto my lord? And he said, An hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take your bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty. Then said he to another, And how much owe you? And he said, An hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take your bill, and write fourscore. And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light. And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that, when you fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations. He who is faithful in that which is least is faithful also in much: and he who is unjust in the least is unjust also in much. If therefore you have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches? And if you have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?
The passage we have now read is a difficult one. There are knots in it which perhaps will never be untied, until the Lord comes again. We might reasonably expect that a book written by inspiration, as the Bible is, would contain things hard to be understood. The fault lies not in the book, but in our own feeble understandings. If we learn nothing else from the passage before us, let us learn humility.
Let us beware, in the first place — that we do not draw lessons from these verses which they were never meant to teach.
The steward whom our Lord describes, is not set before us as a pattern of morality. He is distinctly called the "unjust steward." The Lord Jesus never meant to sanction dishonesty, and unfair dealing between man and man. This steward cheated his master, and broke the eighth commandment. His master was struck with his ingenuity and forethought, when he heard of it — and commended him as a shrewd and far-seeing man.
But there is no proof that his master was pleased with his conduct. Above all, there is not a word to show that the man was praised by Christ. In short, in his treatment of his master, the steward is a beacon to be avoided — and not a pattern to be followed.
The caution, now laid down, is very necessary. Commercial dishonesty is unhappily very common in these latter days. Honest dealing between man and man is increasingly rare. Men do things in the way of business — which will not stand the test of the Bible. In "making haste to be rich," thousands are continually committing actions which are dishonest. (Proverbs 28:20.)
Sharpness and smartness, in bargaining, and buying, and selling, and pushing trade — are often covering over dishonest hearts. The generation of "the unjust steward" is still a very large one. Let us not forget this. Whenever we do to others, what we would not like others to do to us — we may be sure, whatever the world may say — that we are wrong in the sight of Christ.
Let us observe, in the second place — that one principal lesson of the parable before us, is the wisdom of providing against coming evil.
The conduct of the unjust steward, when he received notice to give up his place — was undeniably shrewd and skillful. Dishonest as he was in striking off from the bills of debtors anything that was due to his master — he certainly by so doing, made friends for himself. As wicked as he was — he had an eye to the future. As disgraceful as his measures were — he provided well for himself. He did not sit still in idleness, and see himself reduced to poverty — without a struggle. He schemed, and planned, and contrived, and boldly carried his plans into execution. And the result was that when he lost one home, he secured another.
What a striking contrast between the steward's conduct about his earthly prospects — and the conduct of most men about their souls! In this general point of view, and in this alone — the steward sets us all an example which we should do well to follow. Like him — we should look far forward to things to come. Like him — we should provide against the day when we shall have to leave our present habitation. We should secure "a house in Heaven," which may be our home — when we put off our earthly tabernacle of the body. (2 Corinthians 5:1.) Like him — we should use all means to provide everlasting habitations for ourselves.
The parable, in this point of view, is deeply instructive. It may well raise within us great searchings of heart. The diligence of worldly men about the things of time — should put to shame the coldness of professing Christians about the things of eternity. The zeal and pertinacity of men of business in compassing sea and land to get earthly treasures — may well reprove the slackness and indolence of believers about treasures in Heaven.
The words of our Lord are indeed weighty and solemn, "The master commended the dishonest manager because he had acted shrewdly. For the people of this world are more shrewd in dealing with their own kind — than are the people of the light!" May these words sink into our hearts and bear fruit in our lives!
Let us notice, lastly, in this passage — the remarkable expressions which our Lord uses about little things, in close connection with the parable of the unjust steward. We read that He said, "He who is faithful in that which is least — is faithful also in much; and he who is unjust in the least — is unjust also in much."
Our Lord here teaches us the great importance of strict faithfulness about "little things." He guards us against supposing that such conduct about money as that of the unjust steward, ought ever to be considered a light and trifling thing among Christians. He would have us know that "little things" are the best test of character — and that unfaithfulness about "little things" is the sign of a bad state of heart.
He did not mean, of course, that honesty about money can justify our souls, or put away sin. But He did mean that dishonesty about money is a sure sign of a heart not being "right in the sight of God." The man who is not dealing honestly with the gold and silver of this world — can never be one who has true riches in Heaven. "If you have not been trustworthy with someone else's property — then who will give you property of your own?"
The doctrine laid down by our Lord in this place, deserves most serious consideration in the present day. An idea appears to prevail in some men's minds — that true religion may be separated from common honesty; and that soundness about matters of doctrine, may cover over swindling and cheating in matters of practice! Against this wretched idea, our Lord's words were a plain protest. Against this idea, let us watch and be on our guard. Let us contend earnestly for the glorious doctrines of salvation by grace, and justification by faith. But let us never allow ourselves to suppose that true religion sanctions any trifling with the second table of the law. Let us never forget for a moment — that true faith will always be known by its fruits. We may be very sure that where there is no honesty — there is no saving grace.
Section 98. Serving Two Masters, Luke 16:13-18
No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things: and they derided him. And he said unto them, You are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knows your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination in the sight of God. The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presses into it. And it is easier for Heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail. Whoever puts away his wife, and marries another, commits adultery: and whoever marries her that is put away from her husband commits adultery.
These verses teach us, firstly — the uselessness of attempting to serve God with a divided heart. Our Lord Jesus Christ says, "No servant can serve two masters — for either he will hate the one and love the other — or else he will hold to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon."
The truth here propounded by our Lord appears, at first sight — too obvious to admit of being disputed. And yet the very attempt which is here declared to be useless, is constantly being made by many in the matter of their souls. Thousands on every side are continually trying to do that very thing which Christ pronounces to be impossible. They are endeavoring to be friends of the world, and friends of God — at the same time.
Their consciences are so far enlightened — that they feel they must have some religion. But their affections are so chained down to earthly things — that they never come up to the mark of being true Christians. And hence they live in a state of constant discomfort. They have too much religion to be happy in the world — and they have too much of the world in their hearts to be happy in their religion. In short, they waste their time in laboring to do that which cannot be done. They are striving to serve both God and mammon!
He who desires to be a happy Christian, will do well to ponder our Lord's sayings in these verses. There is perhaps no point on which the experience of all God's saints is more uniform than this, that decision is the secret of comfort in Christ's service. It is the half-hearted Christian who brings up an evil report of the good land.
The more thoroughly we give ourselves to Christ — the more sensibly shall we feel within, "the peace of God which surpasses all understanding." (Philippians 4:7.) The more entirely we live, not to ourselves, but to Him who died for us — the more powerfully shall we realize what it is to have "joy and peace in believing." (Romans 15:13.)
If it is worthwhile to serve Christ at all — then let us serve Him with all our heart, and soul, and mind and strength. Life, eternal life, after all — is the matter at stake, no less than happiness. If we cannot make up our minds to give up everything for Christ's sake — then we must not expect Christ to own us at the last day. He will have all our hearts — or none. "Whoever will be a friend of the world — is the enemy of God." (James 4:4) The end of undecided and half-hearted Christians — will be to be cast out forever!
These verses teach us, secondly — how widely different is the estimate set on things by man, from that which is set on things by God. Our Lord Jesus Christ declares this in a severe rebuke which he addresses to the covetous Pharisees who derided Him. He says, "You are those who justify yourselves before men. But God knows your hearts — for that which is highly esteemed among men, is an abomination in the sight of God."
The truth of this solemn saying appears on every side of us. We have only to look round the world and mark the things on which most men set their affections, in order to see it proved in a hundred ways.
Riches, and honors, and rank, and pleasure — are the chief objects for which the greater part of mankind are living. Yet these are the very things which God declares to be "vanity" — and of the love of which, He warns us to beware!
Praying, and Bible-reading, and holy living, and repentance, and faith, and grace, and communion with God — are things for which few care at all. Yet these are the very things which God in His Word is ever urging on our attention!
The disagreement is glaring, painful, and appalling. What God calls good — that man calls evil! What God calls evil — that man calls good!
Whose words, after all, are true? Whose estimate is correct? Whose judgment will stand at the last day? By whose standard will all be tried — before they receive their eternal sentence? Before whose judgment bar will the current opinions of the world be tested and weighed at last?
These are the only questions which ought to influence our conduct — and to these questions, the Bible returns a plain answer. The counsel of the Lord — it alone shall stand forever. The Word of Christ — it alone shall judge man at the last day. By that Word, let us live. By that Word, let us measure everything, and every person in this evil world.
It matters nothing what man thinks. "What says the Lord?" It matters nothing what it is fashionable or customary to think. "Let God be true — and every man a liar." (Romans 3:4.) The more entirely we are of one mind with God — the better we are prepared for the judgment day.
To love what God loves, to hate what God hates, and to approve what God approves — is the highest style of Christianity. The moment we find ourselves honoring anything which in the sight of God is lightly esteemed — we may be sure there is something wrong in our souls.
These verses teach us, lastly — the dignity and sanctity of the law of God. Our Lord Jesus Christ declares that "it is easier for Heaven and earth to pass away — than for the least stroke of the law to fail."
The honor of God's holy law was frequently defended by Christ during the time of His ministry on earth. Sometimes we find Him defending it against man-made additions — as in the case of the fourth commandment. Sometimes we find Him defending it against those who would lower the standard of its requirements, and allow it to be transgressed — as in the case of the law of marriage. But never do we find Him speaking of the law in any terms but those of respect. He always "magnified the law, and made it honorable." (Isaiah 43:21.)
Its 'ceremonial' part was a type of His own gospel — and was to be fulfilled to the last letter. Its 'moral' part was a revelation of God's eternal mind — and was to be perpetually binding on Christians.
The honor of God's holy law needs continually defending in the present day. On few subjects does ignorance prevail so widely among professing Christians. Some appear to think that Christians have nothing to do with the law — that its moral and ceremonial parts were both of only temporary obligation — and that the daily sacrifice and the ten commandments were both alike put aside by the gospel.
Some on the other hand, think that the law is still binding on us, and that we are to be saved by obedience to it, but that its requirements are lowered by the gospel, and can be met by our imperfect obedience.
Both these views are erroneous and unscriptural. Against both, let us be on our guard.
Let us settle it in our minds that "the law is good — if man uses it lawfully." (1 Timothy 1:8.) It is intended to show us God's holiness — and our sinfulness; to convince us of sin — and to lead us to Christ; to show us how to live after we have come to Christ — and to teach us what to follow and what to avoid. He who so uses the law, will find it a true friend to his soul. The established Christian will always say, "I delight in the law of God after the inward man." (Romans 7:22.)
Section 99. The Rich Man and Lazarus, Luke 16:19-31
There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores, And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom: the rich man also died, and was buried; And in Hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and sees Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame. But Abraham said, Son, remember that you in your lifetime received your good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and you are tormented. And beside all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence. Then he said, I pray you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father's house: For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Abraham says unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent. And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
The parable we have now read, in one respect stands alone in the Bible. It is the only passage of Scripture which describes the feelings of the unconverted after death. For this reason, as well as for many others, the parable deserves especial attention.
We learn, firstly, from this parable — that a man's worldly condition is no test of his state in the sight of God. The Lord Jesus describes to us two men — of whom one was very rich, and the other very poor. The one "fared sumptuously every day." The other was a mere "beggar," who had nothing that he could call his own. And yet of these two, the poor man had grace — and the rich man had none. The poor man lived by faith, and walked in the steps of Abraham. The rich man was a thoughtless, selfish worldling — dead in trespasses and sins.
Let us never give way to the common idea that men are to be valued according to their income, and that the man who has most money is the one who ought to be the most highly esteemed. There is no authority for this notion in the Bible. The general teaching of Scripture is flatly opposed to it. "Not many wise, not many mighty, not many noble — are called." (1 Corinthians 1:26.) "Let not the rich man glory in his riches. But let him who glories glory in this — that he knows and understands me." (Jeremiah 9:24.)
Wealth is no mark of God's favor. Poverty is no mark of God's displeasure. Those whom God justifies and glorifies — are seldom the rich of this world. If we would measure men as God measures them — then we must value them according to their grace.
We learn, secondly, from this parable — that death is the common end to which all classes of mankind must come. The trials of the "beggar," and the sumptuous faring of the "rich man" — alike ceased at last. There came a time when both of them died. "All go to one place." (Ecclesiastes 3:20.)
Death is a great fact that all acknowledge — but very few seem to ponder. Most men eat, and drink, and talk, and plan — as if they were going to live upon earth forever. The true Christian must be on his guard against this spirit. "He who would live well," said a great divine, "should often think of his last day, and make it his company-keeper." Against murmuring, and discontent, and envy — in the state of poverty; and against pride, and self-sufficiency, and arrogance — in the possession of wealth — -there are few better antidotes, than the remembrance of death. "The beggar died" — and his bodily needs were at an end. "The rich man died" — and his feasting was stopped for evermore.
We learn, thirdly, from this parable — that the souls of believers are especially cared for by God in the hour of death. The Lord Jesus tells us that when the beggar died he "was carried by angels to Abraham's bosom."
There is something very comforting in this expression. We know little or nothing of the state and feelings of the dead. When our own last hour comes, and we lie down to die — we shall be like those who journey into an unknown country. But it may satisfy us to know that all who fall asleep in Jesus, are in good keeping. They are not houseless, homeless wanderers between the hour of death and the day of resurrection. They are at rest in the midst of friends — with all who have had like faith with Abraham. They have no lack of anything. And, best of all, Paul tells us that they are "with Christ." (Philippians 1:23.)
We learn, fourthly, from this parable — the reality and eternity of Hell. The Lord Jesus tells us plainly, that after death the rich man was "in Hell — tormented with fire." He gives us a fearful picture of his longing for a drop of "water to cool his tongue," and of "the gulf" between him and Abraham, which could not be passed.
There are few more dreadful passages perhaps in the whole Bible, than this one. And let it be remembered, that He from whose lips it came, was one who delighted in mercy!
The certainty and endlessness of the future punishment of the wicked, are truths which we must hold fast and never let go. From the day when Satan said to Eve, "You shall not surely die!" there never have been lacking men who have denied them. Let us not be deceived. There is a Hell for the impenitent — as well as a Heaven for believers. There is a wrath to come for all who "do not obey the Gospel of Christ." (2 Thessalonians 1:8.) From that wrath — let us flee to the great hiding-place, Jesus Christ the Lord. If men find themselves "in torment" at last — it will not be because there was no way to escape.
We learn, fifthly, from this parable — that unconverted men find out the value of a soul, after death — when it is too late. We read that the rich man wanted Lazarus to be sent to his five brethren who were yet alive, "lest they also should come to the place of torment." While he lived, he had never done anything for their spiritual good. They had probably been his companions in worldliness — and, like him, had neglected their souls entirely. When he is dead he finds out too late — the folly of which they had all been guilty, and desires that, if possible, they might be called to repentance.
The change that will come over the minds of unconverted men after death, is one of the most fearful points in their future condition. They will see, and know, and understand a hundred things to which they were obstinately blind while they were alive. They will discover that, like Esau, they have bartered away eternal happiness — for a mere bowl of stew. There is no infidelity, or skepticism, or unbelief — after death! It is a wise saying of an old divine, that "Hell is nothing more than truth known too late!"
We learn, lastly, from this parable — that the greatest miracles would have no effect on men's hearts, if they will not believe God's Word. The rich man thought that "if one went to his brethren from the dead — they would repent." He argued that the sight of one who came from another world must surely make them feel their need of forgiveness — though the old familiar words of Moses and the prophets had been heard in vain. The reply of Abraham is solemn and instructive, "If they do not hear Moses and the prophets — then neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead."
The principle laid down in these words, is of deep importance. The Scriptures contain all that we need to know in order to be saved — and a messenger from the world beyond the grave could add nothing to them. It is not 'more evidence' which is needed in order to make men repent — but more heart and will to make use of what they already know.
If the 'dead' rose from their graves to instruct us — they could tell us nothing more than the Bible already contains. After the first novelty of their testimony was worn away — we would care no more for their words, than the words of any other.
This wretched waiting for something which we have not, and neglect of what we already have — is the ruin of thousands of souls. Faith, simple faith in the Scriptures which we already possess — is the first thing needful to salvation. The man who has the Bible, and can read it, and yet waits for more evidence before he becomes a decided Christian — is only deceiving himself. Unless he awakens from his delusion, he will die in his sins, and be forever in the torments of Hell.